Works NOT protected by copyright:
Once you determine that permission is needed to use a copyrighted work, either in the classroom or in a published work, you must identify and contact the copyright owner. Many copyrights are now managed by commercial or professional organizations.
For a more comprehensive list, see Obtaining Copyright Permissions from the University of Michigan Libraries.
Journal Articles and Books, especially for educational purposes
The following provide licenses to perform musical works in public. If you wish to perform a musical work on campus, check with PFW's Office of Financial Affairs to see if our university licenses with ASCAP or BMI cover your use.
If permissions are not available from a copyright management organization, you will have to identify and contact the owner directly:
1. Identify the copyright owner
Contact information for known publishers can usually be found through an Internet search or contacting your librarian
Contact information for individual authors and other copyright owners may be more difficult to find. Suggestions include:
3. Request Permission
Your request for permission should be in writing and should clearly describe what you want to do with the copyrighted work.
Contact the library for assistance (Sarah Wagner).
Orphan works are works for which the copyright holder cannot be identified, located and/or does not respond to a request for permission. With the continued lengthening of the duration of copyright protection, there are many items in this limbo. The fact is, even if you cannot locate the copyright owner or the copyright owner is non-responsive, the work is still protected and you and/or the institution is liable for copyright infringement. If you still want to use a copyrighted work that requires permission, consider:
- Factor Three, re-evaluate the amount and substantiality of the portion needed
- Factor Four, market value of the work, may carry less weight if the copyright owner appears to be unavailable or non-responsive
For further information, consult the Society of American Archivists Orphan Works: Statement of Best Practices