This edition addresses new research on how people learn, active learning, and student engagement; includes illustrative examples from online teaching; and reports on the effectiveness of Fink's time-tested model. Fink also explores recent changes in higher education nationally and internationally and offers more proven strategies for dealing with student resistance to innovative teaching. Tapping into the knowledge, tools, and strategies in Creating Significant Learning Experiences empowers educators to creatively design courses that will result in significant learning for their students. "As thought-provoking and inspiring today as it was when it was first published, it is a 'must' for anyone serious about creating courses that challenge students to learn deeply." --Elizabeth F. Barkley, author, Student Engagement Techniques
The present study examined the mediating role of depression symptoms in the relation of college stress and minority status stress to cumulative grade point average (GPA) and persistence intentions among Hispanic women (n = 426) enrolled in a 4-year major research public institution. Results of path analyses indicated a strong model-data fit for the proposed model. When controlling for each other, both typical college stress and minority status stress positively predicted depression and, in turn, depression negatively predicted college persistence intentions. Tests of indirect effects revealed that depression mediated the relation of college stress and minority status stress to persistence. No mediation effects were present in the relation of the stress variables to cumulative GPA. Findings suggest that depression symptoms is one of the pathways through which college stress and minority status stress may result in lower levels of persistence intentions and, possibly, dropout behavior among Hispanic college women in 4-year institutions.
The purpose of the study was to examine among Hispanic college women to what extent ethnic minority status stress was uniquely associated to persistence intentions when taking into account general college stress. The study also examined if college self-efficacy moderated the relation of minority status stress to students’ persistence intentions. Participants were 135 Hispanic undergraduate female students (67.4% of Mexican descent; 80.7% born in the United States) enrolled in a diverse, major research, urban, public university in the Southwest United States. Findings revealed that at the bivariate level, both college stress and minority stress were negatively related to students’ college persistence intentions. However, ethnic minority status stress did not contribute unique variance to persistence intentions when controlling for general college stress. College self-efficacy moderated the relation of both college stress and minority status stress to persistence intentions; that is, both college stress and minority status stress were negatively related to persistence intentions among students who scored the lowest in self- efficacy; neither stress variable was associated to persistence intentions among students with the highest levels of self-efficacy. Implications of these findings are discusses
In an attempt to explain the lower Latino college graduation rate, the current study focuses on collectivism in kin and nonkin helping situations. The sample comprised 60 students at a 4-year college in the southwestern United States. Results revealed significance between ethnicity and nonkin collectivism: Latino American college students were significantly more collectivistic toward nonkin groups compared to their non–Latino American counterparts. The use of various support systems may shed some light on the necessary remedy for Latinos’ lower college graduation rate. Implications are discussed for cultural sensitivity training and program development to foster the experience and success of Latino American college students.
At most colleges and universities, African American and Latino students are less likely than students from other racial and ethnic backgrounds to stay enrolled in college and are, therefore, less likely to earn a college degree. "The Digest of Educational Statistics" reports the following trends: in 2006 30% of Whites age 25 and older held a bachelor's degree, while 17% of Blacks and 12% of Hispanics age 25 and older held a bachelor's degree (National Center for Educational Statistics [NCES], 2008). The research presented here is a case study of a cohort of students attending a public research university in California who are exceptional. Unlike the situation at most colleges and universities, African American students in this cohort are significantly less likely to leave college than are other students, whereas Latino students are significantly more likely to leave than are other students. In order to understand why there is a difference in the retention of African American students and Latino students, we examined the extent to which the precollege and college experiences of students in this cohort vary by race/ethnicity. We examined which characteristics affect the retention of Latino students, as well as other racial/ethnic groups.
Discusses developments and adaptations of the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. Origins of the seven principles for good practice in teaching; Advantages of good practice in undergraduate education.
Apathetic students, illiterate graduates, incompetent teaching, impersonal campuses -- so rolls the drumfire of criticism of higher education. More than two years of reports have spelled out the problems. States have been quick to respond by holding out carrots and beating with sticks.
Nonverbal immediacy behaviors are underresearched in the online teaching environment. Using social presence theory as a guiding framework, this study explores several online nonverbal immediacy behaviors: emoticons/figurative language, color, cohesion, visual imagery, and audio in course design; response latency, length, time of day, and message frequency in forums; and type and promptness of feedback via grading and email. Coding of 51 online courses found that more consistent use of nonverbal immediacy behaviors was related to students’ reports of higher course engagement. However, the nonverbal behaviors most associated with engagement were the ones not used as often. Findings indicate instructors can improve the effectiveness of online learning environments via nonverbal immediacy behaviors.
Noncognitive factors, such as academic self-efficacy, motivation, and sense of belonging, predict college students’ academic performance and retention. It is unclear if varying profiles of academic mindset are differentially associated with student success. We examined first-year college students’ academic mindsets (perceived academic self-efficacy, sense of belonging, and academic motivation) along with academic performance and first-to-second-year retention. Participants included 1,400 students enrolled at a diverse, urban research university. Cluster analysis identified 4 profiles of students: all high, self-efficacy-oriented, belonging-oriented, and all low. Students in the all high group were the most likely to succeed and students in the all low group were the least likely. Self-efficacy was more closely associated with academic performance, whereas belonging was more closely associated with retention. The results provide important intervention implications to improve college student success.
The continued growth of the Latino college-going population challenges college and university pesonnel to become better informed on the issues that affect persistence of this diverse group of students. This article reviews the current understanding of those personal, environmental, involvement, and socio-cultural factors influencing student retention. Specific recommendations to increase Latino persistence in higher education are included throughout the article.
This article reviews the literature on retention of African American students at predominately White institutions (PWIs). A focus on current trends in Kentucky colleges and universities outlines regional retention characteristics. With the popularity of team-based learning pedagogy, the author addresses the need for research using team-based learning with African American students attending PWIs. Research suggests retention of African American students can be undermined with pedagogy that is void of cultural sensitivity. The challenges of using team-based learning with African American students attending PWIs are outlined including feelings of isolation of African American students in White team-based learning groups, omission of African American students from relevant group work, discomfort of students with students of differing race/ethnicity, and the effect on group educational experience as a result of student discomfort. Last, recommendations are made for the use of team-based...
This material is derived from a presentation given by Kelly Rocca of St. John's University at the 2007 workshop Student Motivations and Attitudes: The Role of the Affective Domain in Geoscience Learning held at Carleton College.
African Americans are proportionally underrepresented in the population of American nurses. The purpose of this study was to investigate and understand the driving forces behind the successful recruitment and retention of African Americans in Bachelor of Science Nursing (BSN) programs. For this qualitative constructivist grounded-theory study, 16 graduates were interviewed using semistructured questions from an interview guide. Nine themes and three categories emerged from the data. The findings revealed that the unique characteristics of African Americans in their successful recruitment and retention in a BSN program was a process of relying on their inner skills and dispositions to redefine their learning context and embrace their external support systems. This study offers educational leaders a new order of priority for recruitment and retention initiatives and provides useful strategies for nurse educators to redesign their learning approaches to promote the success of African Americans in BSN programs.
Drawing on interviews with 38 black and Latino/a engineering students at a predominantly white, elite university, I use a cultural analytic framework to explicate the role of pre–college integration in the heterogeneous psychosocial and academic experiences of students of color on predominantly white campuses. I identify three cultural strategies students of color adopt to navigate the university’s ethnoracially segregated peer network landscape and more specifically, engage majority–white academic peer networks: integration, marginalized segregation, and social adaptation. Integrators, who hail from predominantly white high schools, engage majority–white academic networks with ease, do not experience ethnoracial marginalization, and form predominantly white networks in college. Marginalized segregators, who come from predominantly black, Latino/a, or mixed high schools, exhibit discomfort engaging majority–white academic networks, experience ethnoracial marginalization, and..
Since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the retention of African American students at predominately White colleges and universities continues to be problematic. Although many of these institutions have implemented retention programs for African American students, few have incorporated a comprehensive program that utilizes multi-program components. Using a qualitative methodology, this study explored how a comprehensive retention program at one predominantly White university impacted the matriculation of African American students. The results revealed that the retention program had a positive influence on the success of African American students, thereby resulting in the students' receiving several academic, social, and cultural benefits. Also emerging from the study was a comprehensive retention model for supporting the retention of African American students at predominately White institutions.
Excerpt from High-Impact Educational Practices: What They Are, Who Has Access to Them, and Why They Matter, by George D. Kuh (AAC&U, 2008). Visit AAC&U’s resources page on high-impact practices for updated information and campus case studies.
An evaluation was conducted on a university peer mentoring program for Latina/o college students (mostly freshmen and first generation) at a Hispanic-Serving Institution. Data were collected across 3 years from 458 Latina/o students with mentors and 86 Latina/o students without mentors (Year 3). Quantitative and qualitative data indicated mentees viewed peer mentors as social capital (e.g., emotional and academic support). Mentees reported increased university integration and connection at posttest, significantly greater than nonmentored students.
My initial teaching practices were based on nine “dysfunctional illusions of rigor.” Overcoming them required revision of my ideas on the value of “hard” courses, the effectiveness of traditional methods, grade inflation, what students should be able to do initially, the fairness of traditional approaches, the importance of fixed deadlines, the importance of content coverage, the accessibility of critical thinking, and the appropriate bases for revising courses and curricula. I present the initial illusions and some more realistic views. These more realistic views are framed in terms of key research findings and some readily accessible models for improved practices.
The article is a qualitative study designed to examine the attitudes of U.S. college freshmen from the millennial generation. Topics discussed include college retention initiatives by colleges and universities aimed at these students, the difficulties these students faced in transitioning from high school to college, and the social aspects of this group.
For many students, working while in college is a defining characteristic of the undergraduate experience. However, student workers often view campus employment as a money-making opportunity rather than a chance for personal development. Likewise, institutions often neglect to consider campus jobs as a means to education and student engagement. It is the distinction between work for remuneration and work for personal development which shapes much of the discussion of student employment throughout A Good Job. This book makes the case for campus employment as a high-impact practice in higher education and provides models for institutional efforts to implement new student employment strategies. Carefully designed campus employment opportunities can have numerous benefits, including career exploration and preparation, learning, and increased engagement leading to increased retention. The authors make the case that employment can and should be a purposeful and powerful component in any higher education institution's efforts to support student learning, development, and success. This book is an excellent resource for anyone interested in capitalizing on the developmental and learning potential of student employment on campus.
Improving college access and success among Black males has garnered tremendous attention. Many social scientists have noted that Black men account for only 4.3% of the total enrollment at 4-year postsecondary institutions in the United States, the same percentage now as in 1976. Furthermore, two thirds of Black men who start college never finish. The lack of progress among Black men in higher education has caused researchers, practitioners, and policymakers to become increasingly focused on ways to increase their access and success. Offering recommendations and strategies to help advance success among Black males, this monograph provides a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of factors that promote the access, retention, and persistence of Black men at diverse institutional types (e.g., historically Black colleges and universities, predominantly White institutions, and community colleges). It delineates institutional policies, programs, practices, and other factors that encourage the success of Black men in postsecondary education. This is the 3rd issue of the 40th volume of the Jossey-Bass series ASHE Higher Education Report. Each monograph is the definitive analysis of a tough higher education issue, based on thorough research of pertinent literature and institutional experiences. Topics are identified by a national survey. Noted practitioners and scholars are then commissioned to write the reports, with experts providing critical reviews of each manuscript before publication.
Using social media to enhance learning outcomes, engagement, and retention Although research shows that most of today's college students adopt and use social media at high rates, many higher education professionals are unaware of how these technologies can be used for academic benefit. Author Reynol Junco, associate professor at Purdue University and fellow at the Harvard Berkman Center for Internet & Society, has been widely cited for his research on the impact of social technology on students. In Engaging Students through Social Media: Evidence-Based Practice for Use in Student Affairs, he offers a practical plan for implementing effective social media strategies within higher education settings. The book bridges the gap between a desire to use social media and the process knowledge needed to actually implement and assess effective social media interventions, providing a research-based understanding of how students use social media and the ways it can be used to enhance student learning. Discover how social media can be used to enhance student development and improves academic outcomes Learn appropriate strategies for social media use and how they contribute to student success in both formal and informal learning settings Dispel popular myths about how social media use affects students Learn to use social media as a way to engage students, teach online civil discourse, and support student development The benefits of social media engagement include improvements in critical thinking skills, content knowledge, diversity appreciation, interpersonal skills, leadership skills, community engagement, and student persistence. This resource helps higher education professionals understand the value of using social media, and offers research-based strategies for implementing it effectively.
Drawing on studies funded by the Lumina Foundation, the nation's largest private foundation focused solely on increasing Americans' success in higher education, the authors revise current theories of college student departure, including Tinto's, making the important distinction between residential and commuter colleges and universities, and thereby taking into account the role of the external environment and the characteristics of social communities in student departure and retention. A unique feature of the authors' approach is that they also consider the role that the various characteristics of different states play in degree completion and first-year persistence. First-year college student retention and degree completion is a multi-layered, multi-dimensional problem, and the book's recommendations for state- and institutional-level policy and practice will help policy-makers and planners at all levels as well as anyone concerned with institutional retention rates--and helping students reach their maximum potential for success--understand the complexities of the issue and develop policies and initiatives to increase student persistence.